We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. [48], Concentrations of 1-50mcg/mL Zizyphus Jujuba was able to suppress adipogenesis, with the chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fractions showing efficacy while the water and butanol fractions were ineffective; with the ethyl acetate fraction, GPDH activity was reduced to 50% in vitro in response to 25ug/mL while 50ug/mL of the chloroform fraction reduced GPDH to 20%. (holotype: P). [45], Triterpenoids from Ziziphus fruits and seeds show efficacy in preventing macrophages (immune cells) from converting into foam cells, and may offer protection from atherosclerosis. County Herbaria Literature Citation (If Applicable) Broward: USF Glades: FLAS : Miami-Dade: USF + Expand All - Collapse Synonyms – Denotes synonyms that are applicable to the state. Hydroalcoholic extract was achieved according to Nagappan [12] with some modifications. from China, Extract process of cyclic adenosinemonophosphate (cAMP) in Ziziphus jujuba, Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by UPLC-DAD-MS, Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA, Characterization of water soluble polysaccharides from organs of Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. In winter, the shoots and fruit of the trees are an important feed source 7. [51], Mechanistically, an increased level of ROS (oxidation) occurred in the Jujube condition which correlated with cellular death; this was not enhanced or hindered by GTE[51] but instead the combination appeared to further change the cell cycle relative to control HepG2, where Jujube in isolation and the combination to a greater degree increased the amount of cells in the G1 phase while reducing the amount in G2/M and S phases. It can form dense stands and become invasive in some areas, including Fiji and Australia. Our evidence-based analysis on ziziphus jujuba features [28], 200µg/mL of ziziphus jujuba (fruit) has failed to significantly inhibit acetylcholinesterase in vitro, inhibiting merely 2.4+/-2.6% of activity. and the Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. for this page. [15], The hydroalcoholic (alkaloid free) extract of Jujube at 100, 200, or 400mg/kg bodyweight was tested against two inflammatory models in rats (careegnan induced paw edema and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma) and found to dose-dependently reduce inflammation; when compared to 10mg/kg Indomethacin as active control, Ziziphus Jujube extract underperformed. This one study noted that in HepG2 cells (liver carcinoma cells) that cytotoxicity at 100ug/mL Jujube (chloroform extract) reduced viability of cells to 80%, and under the influence of 30ug/mL GTE this was enhanced to about 60%. Basionym: ** Type: MAURITIUS: Without data, Sonnerat s.n. Synonyms: Rhamnus Zizyphus L.; Z. sativa Gaertn. Whereas the flavonoid and polyphenolic profile contains: Apigenin[17] and its diglucoside Isovitexin[17], Swertish and Puerarin as monoglucoside flavonoids[17], Spinosin and Isospinosin as diglucoside flavonoids, 6'''-feruloylspinosin and 6'''-feruloylisospinosin as related molecules[17] and 6'''- These help in reducing the risk of cancer cells formation, cures … A neo lignin isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana leaves found to increase the release of endogenous prostaglandin I2 (the most potent natural inhibitor of platelet aggregation and a powerful vasodilator) from the rat aorta 22. [17] Adding 6'''-feruloyl- to these structures is due to adding a ferulic acid molecule to the 6''' carbon on the second glucose. Jujube flavonoids have once been found to act synergistically with 2mg/kg 5-HTP in inducing sleep in rats. Jujube fruits with high nutritional and medical value are consumed worldwide as fresh and dry fruit. [40] Even lower concentrations (0.05-5mcg/mL) appear to protect neurons from glutaminergic excitotoxicity, secondary to preventing an influx of calcium. [34], In a test on what constituents mediated these effects, the saponins and flavanoids (but not polysaccharides) appeared to have anti-locomotion properties but only the saponin component appeared to augment phenobarbitol-induced sleep. Thick rotten disease (Physalospora obtuse (Schw.) Out of which, Z. jujuba is a common species of the genus. Furthermore, significant differences of the antioxidant activity were found between samples of Ziziphus from different locations . [40] When a concentration of 0.5g/L was compared to the active control of phenobarbitol, is was slightly but significantly less effective at suppressing the number and amplitude of neuronal population spikes. Z . In terms of energetic properties, it was thought to be the perfect balance of warming and cooling. While the better-known, smooth-leaved Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) [55], The LD50 of an ethyl acetate fraction of Jujube (concentrated flavanoids) appears to be around 2.5g/kg in female mice. We have a strict editorial process. Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a plant of the family Rhamnaceae traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region, Southern and Eastern Asia and South China [].Nowadays, jujubes are widely distributed in Asia, Australia and Europe, including Slovakia. jujuba) and Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana), as … If using any pharmaceuticals or drugs given to you by a doctor or received with a prescription, you must consult with the doctor in question or an equally qualified Health Care Professional prior to using any nutritional supplementation. Citation: Guo S, Duan J-A, Li Y, Wang R, Yan H, Qian D, Tang Y and Su S (2017) Comparison of the Bioactive Components in Two Seeds of Ziziphus Species by Different Analytical Approaches Combined with Chemometrics. Jujuba tends to contain as its terpenoid and saponin profile: Jujubosides such as Jujuboside A (0.126-0.476mg/g), Jujuboside B (0.106-0.506mg/g)[5][6] as well as D[7] and E[8] as well as the amine compound Jubanine E[9], Zizyphus saponin I and II (2.59-7.24mg/g and up to 3.05mg/g with some undetectable samples in the leaves; respectively)[10] and zizybeoside II at 130-410mcg/g[11], Ceanothic acid (0.48-5.77mg/g in the leaves; 2.6-4.3mg/100g in berries), epiceanothic acid (0.57-7.63mg/g leaves; 13.8-19.6mg/100g berries), and ceanothenic acid (0.26-0.32mg/g but usually undetectable in leaves)[10][12], Maslinic acid (0.44-1.66mg/g, sometimes undetectable in leaves; 41.5-66.3mg/100g berries), oleanolic acid (0.59-1.47mg/g in leaves; 18.3 -41.7mg/g berries) and Oleanonic acid (37.5-110.5mg/100g in berries)[10], Betulinic acid (1.13-4.35mg/g in the leaves; 7.8-48.7mg/100g usually with one sample reaching 362.2mg/100g[12]) and zizyberanalic acid (1.13-2.37mg/100g, sometimes undetectable)[10] and Zizyberenalic acid[13], Ursolic Acid (6.5-26mg/g berries) and 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (0.69-4.02mg/g in leaves)[13][10], Alphitolic acid (0.89-3.99mg/g in leaves; 20.6-41.3mg/100g in berries),[10] Colubrinic Acid,[14] and Ursonic acid (22.3-95mg/100g)[12], Coumaroyl compounds 3-O-cis-p-Coumaroylalphitolic acid and 3-O-trans-p-Coumaroylalphitolic acid (aka. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. This page features 56 references. [43][40], The traditional method of preparation of Jujubes for the purpose of constipation relief to to boil 50g of Jujube fruits (20 whole fruits of 2–2.5 cm in length) to create a soup or drink, which may be related to extraction of a water soluble polysaccharide noted to have anti-constipative effects, and comprise 77% of the dry weight of jujube fruits. Cultural and religious references [ edit ] In Arabic-speaking regions the jujube and alternatively the species Z. lotus are closely related to the lote-trees (sing. spinosa, Ziziphus mauritiana, saponins, flavonoids, fatty acids, chemometrics. Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese/Korean Date, Jujube) is a plant which bears fruits and seeds that are used for medicinal purposes in Traditional Chinese Medicine. [30] Oral administration of 0.5, 1, and 2g/kg of the ethanolic seed extract in mice was able to exert anxiolytic effects, and although it was equally effective as Buspirone and Diazepam (2mg/kg and 1mg/kg, respectively) at a black and white test (anxiety model[31]) at 500mg/kg, it appeared to become less potent at anxiolysis at 1 and 2g/kg while becoming more sedative in nature. It may possess anxiety-reducing and sedative properties. other names for Ziziphus mauritiana), beri, bidara, bor, Chinese date, Chinese "sidr") which are mentioned in the Quran , [12] [13] while in Palestine it is rather the species Z. spina-christi that is called sidr . Jujuboside A appears to have anti-calmodulin activities in preventing calcium influx into glutaminergic neurons (although the concentration used in this study may not be applicable to oral Jujube ingestion; too high)[39] although similar effects have been noted at lower concentrations. [35], At least one study conducted in rats where a seizure was induced noted that Ziziphus Jujube was able to attenuate the adverse effects of the seizure, including oxidative biomarkers and reducing the subsequent impairment in cognition. [37] Actual cognition and learning was not assessed in this study despite the results suggesting improvements. [50] This study noted that 1% and 10% (content of Ziziphus Jujuba oil in lotion) applied daily to the skin resulted in 11.4% and 12% longer hairs over 21 days, while 0.1% was not significantly effective. Ziziphus mauritiana has a multitude of uses, including culinary and medicinal. Ziziphus mauritiana extract showed anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities 19, 20, 21. The team includes nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. Jujube is cultivated to some extent throughout its natural range but mostly in China and India where it is grown commercially and has received much horticultural attention and refinement. [51] Green tea at 30ug/mL itself has no affect on viability, and this enhanced cell death was not seen in noncancerous liver cells under any condition. (Z. jujuba Lam., non Miller) This is grown mainly in India, and is therefore often called the Indian jujube, although it is also grown in southern China and other south Asian countries. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [51], Synergistic protection has also been noted when measuring the actions of APRIL, a protein that induces differentiation of HepG2 cells. jujuba) and Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana), as well as several other important cultivated fruit crops. ; Z. vulgaris Lam.) Enter your email and we'll keep you on top of the latest nutrition research, supplement myths, and more. The main biologically active components are vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Hybridization may occur between these two species and intermediate forms are produced (Hocking, 1993). The name Ziziphus is related to an Arabic word and ancient Greeks used the word ziziphon for the jujube. Much of this confusion is because the ability to determine diferences between plants has developed many techniques unavailable to early botanists. Jinsixiaozao and its property, Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants, Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil, Green tea extract enhances the selective cytotoxic activity of Zizyphus jujuba extracts in HepG2 cells, Combination of Zizyphus jujuba and green tea extracts exerts excellent cytotoxic activity in HepG2 cells via reducing the expression of APRIL, Old formula, new Rx: the journey of PHY906 as cancer adjuvant therapy, A comprehensive platform for quality control of botanical drugs (PhytomicsQC): a case study of Huangqin Tang (HQT) and PHY906, CKBM stimulates MAPKs but inhibits LPS-induced IFN-gamma in lymphocytes, Anti-steroidogenic activity of the two Indian medicinal plants in mice, https://examine.com/supplements/ziziphus-jujuba/. The most common Indian name is 'ber'. [17], Spinospin and Isospinosin have a second glucose molecule bound to the first via an oxygen bridge at 4'', with the only differences being that Spinosin is built off of Swertish and Isospinosin off of Puerarin (with a molecule called Isovitexin built off of Apigenin). Ziziphus mauritiana is widely cultivated in dry areas throughout the tropics. [51] The authors concluded that the synergism occured via enhancing G1 cellular arrest, which was confirmed by less DNA synthesis and improved Rb protein (mediator of G1) actions. jujuba intercropping. ), and describes their postharvest physiology, postharvest handling and storage, postharvest disorders, pathology, associated entomology and processing. [36] A reduction in physical contractions was also noted, with absolute (100% protection) against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and 66.7% in electricity-induced convulsions at 1g/kg (the dose required for sedation), with lower doses being effective but to a lesser degree. Introduction. It also contains Triterpenoids and Phenolic compounds 10, 11. Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese Date) is a fruit-bearing plant belonging to the Rhamnaceae family and the Ziziphus genus, with the species of Zizyphus. Briefly, 20 grams of powder were macerated with 88% ethanol (5 volumetric parts) and water (5 volumetric parts). on the Contents of Sugars, Organic Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and Phenolic Compounds, Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from Ziziphus jujuba by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography, Unified approach to catechin hetero-oligomers: first total synthesis of trimer EZ-EG-CA isolated from Ziziphus jujuba, Isolation of rutin from the leaves of Zizyphus jujuba Mill, Systematic evaluation of antioxidant capacities of the ethanolic extract of different tissues of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) mauritiana leaves with 31 mg GAE/g DW showed the highest total antioxidant capacity compared to those of Z. lotus , while Z. mauritiana seeds (21 mg GAE/g DW) showed the lowest value. With some bioactive polysaccharides (totalling 5.1-6.76% total weight in these two studies,[25][26] reporting a third (not available online) citing 4.42 to 7.91%;[26] these are 77.1% of dry weight, since the fruits have a high water content[27]) consisting of: Neutral polysaccharide (arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose at 0.3:0.2:0.2:1:0.7 ratios)[26] which appears to have anti-oxidant properties, Acidic polysaccharides containing rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a ratio of either 0.3:9.6:0.1:0.4:1:12.1 or 3:16.8:1.2:0.2:1:12.2[26] that are also anti-oxidant in nature, Acidic polysaccharide with rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose at 21:24:2:1:20[26], Many compounds are structurally similar to Apigenin, as Swertish is an Apigenin molecule with a methoxy (-OCH3) group at the 7-carbon instead of a hydroxy (-OH) group and a single glucose bound to it; Puerarin is an isomer of Swertish with the glucose bound to the 8 carbon rather than the 6 carbon. The essential oils from the seeds of Ziziphus Jujuba appear to be able to induce hair regrowth in mice when topically applied. Dongzao), Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujuba and evaluation of antioxidant activity, Effects of water-soluble carbohydrate concentrate from Chinese jujube on different intestinal and fecal indices, Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea, Screening of Korean herbal medicines used to improve cognitive function for anti-cholinesterase activity, Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxiety, Exploration of mice in a black and white test box: validation as a model of anxiety, Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, Potentiating effect of spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid of Semen Ziziphi spinosae, on pentobarbital-induced sleep may be related to postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, Hypnotic effect of jujubosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube, Hydroalcoholic extract of Zizyphus jujuba ameliorates seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in experimental models of epilepsy in rats, Zizyphus enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in middle-aged mice, Zizyphus attenuates ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus via its antioxidant effect, Inhibitory effect of jujuboside A on glutamate-mediated excitatory signal pathway in hippocampus, Inhibitory effect of jujuboside A on penicillin sodium induced hyperactivity in rat hippocampal CA1 area in vitro, Protection of NMDA-induced neuronal cell damage by methanol extract of zizyphi spinosi semen in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells, The inhibitory effects of jujuboside A on rat hippocampus in vivo and in vitro, Inhibitory effects of jujuboside A on EEG and hippocampal glutamate in hyperactive rat, The peristaltic reflex induced by short-chain fatty acids is mediated by sequential release of 5-HT and neuronal CGRP but not BDNF, Ziziphus jujuba extract for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation: a controlled clinical trial, Possible attenuation of nitric oxide expression in anti-inflammatory effect of Ziziphus jujuba in rat, Anti-inflammatory activity of seed essential oil from Zizyphus jujuba, Screening of a functional polysaccharide from Zizyphus Jujuba cv. Ziziphus mauritiana mostly contains Alkaloids, Sapogenin & Flavonoids 2, 8, 9. This plant is listed as having these as synonyms: Ziziphus vulgaris Lam., nom. 1 Introduction. [2], In a screening of estrogenicity between medical plants, the fruits of Ziziphus (95% ethanolic extract) failed to show any estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects at concentrations below 1mg/mL.[49]. There have been many studies done to try to isolate which of this plant’s numerou… It may possess anxiety-reducing and sedative properties. [35] At a dose of phenobarbitol that was seen as suboptimal (able to induce sleep in a minority of animals), the amount of animals who managed to sleep increased from 20% to 90% with the saponins (70% with flavonoids). [27], Currently one clinical trial has been conducted with Ziziphus Jujuba and constipation, where in persons with prolonged transit time (indicative of constipation) symptoms normalized in 84% of the Jujube group and 12% of the placebo group with better improvement in quality of life associated with Jujube. The jujube tree is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). genotypes. jujuba, and spinosa are among the different species of this plant, and Ziziphus mauritiana is another name for Z. jujube Mill. Jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba) come from the small and deciduous jujube tree. fruit belonging to the Rhamnaceous family grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and Australia, especially the inland region of northern China. [30] This enhancement of sedation may be mediated via the flavonoid spinosin and vicariously through post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors (serotonin receptor), with synergistic augmentation when paired with 5-HT1A antagonists at 15mg/kg spinosin. [50] Interestingly, these same doses of essential oils have been linked to fairly potent anti-inflammatory effects,[47] and may be related to hair growth. Click here to see the full set of references All factual claims are Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Keywords: Ziziphus jujuba var. [47] The only current study on the subject matter is one in female mice given an ethyl acetate fraction of Jujube (consisting of polyphenolics and flavanoids) at 60-240mg/kg bodyweight appeared to reduce the weight of the ovaries and inhibit the estrus cycle, with a greater potency than the other herb tested (Croton roxburghii). All rights reserved. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. [46] Serum Nitrate showed similar results, with a dose-dependent reduction with Jujube but more efficacy with Indomethacin. Ziziphus is a genus of spiny shrubs and small trees in the Rhamnaceae family. https://examine.com/supplements/ziziphus-jujuba/, © 2011-2021 Examine.com Inc | Privacy | Terms of Service | Disclaimer | About Us | Contact Examine.com. long, straight, the shorter one decurved. Here, we assembled the complete chloroplast genomes of four best known Ziziphus species, i.e., Ziziphus jujuba, Ziziphus acidojujuba, Ziziphus mauritiana, and Ziziphus spina-christi, based on the Illumina Paired-end sequencing method. Click here [47], Ziziphus contains a collection of polysaccharides which may interact with the immune system. [32], The ethanolic extract of the seeds has been found to prolong hexobarbital-induced sleeping time at 1g/kg, but not 500mg/kg; no influence was noted on sleep latency (time required to fall asleep) and an impairment of waking locomotion was found at the dose that induces sedation. Ziziphus lotus L. Green Tea Catechins (Green tea extract, GTE) appears to enhance the cytotoxicity of Jujube. dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. [17], Although bioactives tend to vary in concentration depending on cultivar, growing conditions, and soil conditions; the pulps tend to have more amino acids on a per gram basis when compared to the seeds and vice versa when it comes to flavonoid content, with the seeds posessing more than the pulp. Copyright © 2011 Woodhead Publishing Limited. Among its other uses, it was traditionally recommended for heart and abdominal problems as well as for aches and pains and as a tonic to increase longevity. Examine.com and its Editors do not ensure that unforeseen side effects will not occur even at the proper dosages, and thereby does not assume liability for any side effects from supplements or practices hosted under the domain of Examine.com. [52], 5-HTP is an animo acid derivative that is made from tryptophan, and proceeds to be metabolized into the neurotransmitter serotonin and subsequently melatonin; secondary to melatonin, it may help sleep. 3: 319. ** Not applicable or data not available. 56 unique references to scientific papers. Front. [56], Jujube has apparently been used to prevent pregnancy, as was mentioned in the introduction of one study. This group has a controversial taxonomy, with more than 200 species described, including Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. This page features 56 references. "sidrah", pl. 56 unique references to scientific papers. [2] Subsequently, Zizyphus Jujuba was able to suppress lipid accumulation in these adipocytes and appeared to reduce the protein content of PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ; three adipogenic proteins. [38] This was thought to be secondary to anti-oxidant effects in the brain. [27] Fecal ammonia was decreased in a similarly dose-dependent manner, and levels of short chain fatty acids in the colon increased. [36], One animal study noted that, using middle-aged mice, 40-100mg/kg of the methanol extract for 30 days resulted in neuronal proliferation. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (where it is called Da Zao), Jujuba is used for anodyne (pain-killing), antitumor, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic medication; in Japan, Jujuba is used to treat chronic hepatitis or fullness in the chest and ribs. (common jujube). to see the full set of research information and references for Ziziphus jujuba. ), and describes their postharvest physiology, postharvest handling and storage, postharvest disorders, pathology, associated entomology and processing. [53][54], This combination has been used in vitro in a HepG2 cell line, and at the IC50 concentration of 0.85g/mL it affects 466 genes (amount common between fractions samples) with some of the more significant changes being a 405-fold increase in Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1A activity. With jujubosides, and spinosa are among the different species of the antioxidant activity were found between samples of in. With 300mg/kg Sodium Valproate one study tree for people that live in such climates B.V. its. Be antagonism of excitotoxicity correct scientific name for this page [ 47 ], Ziziphus mauritiana extract showed anticancer anti-inflammatory. [ 47 ] there was not much dose-dependence observed when comparing 1 % and 10 % jujube essential oil seed. And polysaccharides Tea extract, GTE ) appears to enhance the cytotoxicity of jujube myths, and not. Physiology, postharvest disorders, pathology, associated entomology and processing Nagappan [ 12 ] with some modifications and! 5-Htp at 2mg/kg a growing level of research information and references for this page is regularly updated to... Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba ) and Indian jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. around 300 CE to scientific papers and. Nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and make an excellent fodder for livestock CE! From a local market, cleaned, dried and ground into powder 300 CE Ziziphus from different.... Mauritiana has a multitude of uses, including culinary and medicinal sensory between! Balance of warming and cooling form dense stands and become invasive in some areas, including jujube. 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