Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability from a single dose of fresh tomatoes or tomato paste (23 mg lycopene) ingested together with 15 g corn oil was compared by analyzing carotenoid concentrations in the chylomicron fraction. Plant-Derived Antioxidants Protect the Nervous System From Aging by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. Processed Tomatoes. Read on to find out the amazing health benefits of tomatoes. The absorption of lycopene is highly dependent on the tomato product being consumed. Oxidative stress is one of the major contributors to increased risk of chronic diseases. An update on the health effects of tomato lycopene. 3,4. Tomato juice can lower our bad cholesterol 13%. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The lycopene content in tomato paste is higher than fresh tomatoes. Our bodies absorb lycopene from tomato paste four times better than from fresh tomatoes!  |  Carotenoid absorption in humans consuming tomato sauces obtained from tangerine or high-beta-carotene varieties of tomatoes. In one study, heat processing released up to 2.5 times the lycopene from tomatoes, making it more available and absorbable in the body. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2019 , 99 (6) , 2763-2774. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Epub 2017 Nov 20. Also, canned tomatoes contain less of the popular antioxidant found in tomatoes called lycopene, which is mainly found in the skin of tomatoes, because canned tomatoes are often skinless. Vitamin A deficiency remains a major nutritional problem in most economically disadvantaged areas of the world (Olson 1994a, Sommer and West 1996), in which populations usually rely primarily on dietary sources of provitamin A carotenoids to meet vitamin A needs. of tomatoes. The triacylglycerol response in chylomicrons was not significantly different after both treatments. For example, ketchup boasts 10–14 mg of lycopene per 3.5 ounces (100 grams), while one small, fresh tomato (100 grams) holds only 1–8 mg . Comparison of lycopene changes between open‐field processing and fresh market tomatoes during ripening and post‐harvest storage by using a non‐destructive reflectance sensor. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry. Public health strategies that promote increased intakes of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits have been considered to be the most appropriate solution to the problem (Solomons and Bulux 1993), although recent studies of the efficacy … However, keep in … Takeoka GR, Dao L, Flessa S, Gillespie DM, Jewell WT, Huebner B, Bertow D, Ebeler SE. A serving of fresh tomatoes contains between 4 mg and 10 mg of lycopene, while one cup (240 mL) of tomato juice provides about 20 mg. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. This article will examine their powerful health benefits, nutritional content, ways to include more tomatoes in the diet, and the risks of tomato consumption. The lycopene isomer pattern was the same in both fresh tomatoes and tomato paste. Fresh vs. Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis D, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. particularly important in processing tomatoes, as lycopene is more readily absorbed in the human body in its processed forms as compared to its raw form in fresh tomatoes (Gartner et al., 1997; Stahl and Sies, 1996). RESULTS: Lycopene contents of fresh, sun‐dried and canned tomatoes were found to be 1.74, 5.51 and 3.55 mg 100 g −1, respectively, on a fresh wet basis. Table 2 shows the percentage loss of lycopene content. Tomatoes, watermelons, and processed tomato products contain abundant antioxidant compounds, including lycopene. However, it is higher than 80.27 and 120.67 mg/100 g of fresh tomato harvested in northern California in 1998 and 1999 (Takeoka and others 2001). In fact, processing of tomatoes increases the lycopene content because of the concentration operations and more importantly it makes it more bioavailable. A comparison of lycopene and other phytochemicals in tomatoes grown under conventional and organic management systems. Lycopene has antioxidant property. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Development of tomato cultivars with improved fruit lycopene content using traditional breeding approaches requires an ef fi cient Onions, head lettuce, and potatoes are the only fresh vegetables consumed more frequently than tomatoes in America, whereas tomatoes are by far the most frequently consumed canned vegetable (1,2). 2020 Jan;74(1):252-256. doi: 10.1007/s11418-019-01341-4. Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis DM, Nagaraja HN, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ. 2020 Jul 14;12:209. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00209. Methods: We evaluated the association between intake of lycopene and specific tomato products and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a multicenter study designed to investigate cancer … Consumption of lycopene-rich tomatoes improved glucose homeostasis in rats via an increase in leptin levels. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. According to the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 1 raw tomato contains 4,631 micrograms of lycopene while 1 cup of tomato puree contains 54,385 micrograms. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol.  |  lycopene is from fresh tomatoes and the remaining 50% is from various processed tomato products (Rao et al. Heritability and Variability of Quality Parameters of Tomatoes in Outdoor Production. AMB Express. NIH The highest lycopene bioavailability was obtained for sun‐dried tomatoes (58.05%) and this was followed by fresh (28.67%) and canned tomatoes (21.83%). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Tomatoes are now the fourth most popular fresh-market vegetable behind potatoes, lettuce, and onions. J Agric Food Chem. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. In the study, the tomato samples which were heated to 88 degrees Celsius (190.4 degrees F ) for 15 minutes, their beneficial trans-lycopene content increased by 171% and the vitamin C content decreased by 15% as compared to raw uncooked tomatoes. 2000 May;130(5):1189-96. doi: 10.1093/jn/130.5.1189. In contrast, tomato paste provides 28764 mcg (28.7 mg) of lycopene per 100 grams, and it is more bioavailable too. 2020 Jun 17;4(7):nzaa102. Application Lycopene has been used: • in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to … Processing effects on lycopene content and antioxidant activity of tomatoes. tomatoes contain the highest amount of lycopene (46 μg g–1), but lower amounts are also found in red beans, chilli peppers, green peppers, etc. It is a red open-chain unsaturated carotenoid, acyclic isomer of beta-carotene, and longer than any other carotenoid. Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. The lycopene isomer pattern was the same in both fresh tomatoes and tomato paste. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. 2007 Jul;98(1):140-6. doi: 10.1017/S0007114507685201. If you eat 32 calories' worth of raw, fresh tomato, you can get an outstanding amount of the carotenoid lycopene: 4,631 micrograms. No differences were observed in disposition kinetics of natural and synthetic lycopene. In this study, besides some morphological characteristics of the berries, we report a comparison between the content of lycopene and β-carotene in red ripe raw tomatoes and the tomato sauce of four high pigments (Hly 02, Hly 13, Hly 18, Kalvert) and an ordinary (Perfectpeel) cv. 16.2 Carrot. Lycopene is better absorbed by the body when it is consumed in cooked tomato products, rather than fresh tomatoes. The systemic availability of synthetic lycopene from a tablet formulation is comparable to that observed from processed tomatoes (soup from tomato paste) and superior to that from tomato juice. In fact, research shows that 100 mg of raw tomato has 2,573 mcg of lycopene while 100 mg of tomato sauce has 15,152 mcg. 2019 Jul 19;8(7):230. doi: 10.3390/antiox8070230. Rao AV(1). Curiously, the bioavailability of lycopene is greater in processed/heated tomato products than in fresh items. Because lycopene is so insoluble in water and is so tightly bound to vegetable fiber, the bioavailablity of lycopene is increased by processing. Therefore, an equivalent dose to research studies would be around 300 to 600 grams (1). And, cancer prevention is just the beginning. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Thus, in humans, the bioavailability of lycopene is greater from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Zörb C, Piepho HP, Zikeli S, Horneburg B. Ingestion of tomato paste was found to yield 2.5-fold higher total and all-trans-lycopene peak concentrations (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively) and 3.8-fold higher area under the curve (AUC) responses (P < 0.001) than ingestion of fresh tomatoes. 2010;1:189-210. doi: 10.1146/annurev.food.102308.124120. Read on to find out the amazing health benefits of tomatoes. Steam them quickly or microwave them to preserve the most vitamins. In contrast, canned tomatoes are usually picked at their peak ripeness or nearly ripe, then processed almost immediately in a nearby factory. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. NIH  |  It is found in tomatoes, watermelon and papaya. Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS) at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C) and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. Crowe-White KM, Voruganti VS, Talevi V, Dudenbostel T, Nagabooshanam VA, Locher JL, Ellis AC. Annually, the average American consumes 17.9 pounds of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and 68.7 pounds of processed tomato products, as shown in Table 1 (1,2). But even in season, canned tomatoes offer something that fresh can't. Because some canned tomatoes contain additives such as salt and sugars, they often have more calories, carbohydrates, and sodium in them. Variation of Serum Lycopene in Response to 100% Watermelon Juice: An Exploratory Analysis of Genetic Variants in a Randomized Controlled Crossover Study. However, the research revealed that the beneficial trans-lycopene content of the cooked tomatoes increased by 54, 171 and 164 per cent respectively. Epub 2015 Nov 11. Volna) tomatoes (90 and 62 mg kg −1 fresh weight, respectively). Can successfully treat seasonal allergies, and may even help treat asthma. 2000 Jan;40(1):1-42. doi: 10.1080/10408690091189275. 18,19 This assessment of tomato consumers did not compare sodium intakes. Samples were dried to constant weight at 105 °C. Average Canadian daily dietary intake of lycopene is about 25.2 mg. Fifty percent of this lycopene is from fresh tomatoes and the rest 50% is from various processed tomato products. Weber D, Kochlik B, Demuth I, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Grune T, Norman K. Redox Biol. Tomato extracts in the form of oleoresin or beadlets are commercially available but the bioavailability of lycopene from these sources is rather limited in humans (8–10). Lycopene is the wonderful cancer-fighting red pigment in tomatoes. NLM Lycopene is synthesized by plants and microorganisms, but not by animals. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Odes-Barth S, Khanin M, Linnewiel-Hermoni K, Miller Y, Abramov K, Levy J, Sharoni Y. Antioxidants (Basel). NLM Hashimoto N, Tominaga N, Wakagi M, Ishikawa-Takano Y. J Nat Med. Plasma carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol - Association with age in the Berlin Aging Study II. Moran NE, Cichon MJ, Riedl KM, Grainger EM, Schwartz SJ, Novotny JA, Erdman JW Jr, Clinton SK. Compartmental and noncompartmental modeling of ¹³C-lycopene absorption, isomerization, and distribution kinetics in healthy adults. Research (Wash D C). HHS While processing can sometimes reduce the nutritional content of food, research suggests it is the other way round for lycopene. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2019 , 99 (6) , 2763-2774. The research dispels the popular notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce." Processed tomato products as a source of dietary lycopene: bioavailability and antioxidant properties. As a nutritional bonus, a powerful antioxidant, Lycopene, is even more bio-available in processed tomatoes than in fresh. A good example would be the amount of lycopene present in tomato. Br J Nutr. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Tomatoes are preserved using heat, which releases lycopene-a carotenoid that may help prevent prostate and breast cancer. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The Economic Research Service of the USDA estimates that 35% of raw tomatoes are processed into sauces, 18% into tomato p… 2020 Nov 23;9(11):1167. doi: 10.3390/antiox9111167. trans-lycopene was the same in both tomato meals. Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects. Comparison of lycopene changes between open‐field processing and fresh market tomatoes during ripening and post‐harvest storage by using a non‐destructive reflectance sensor. lycopene from other sources such as fresh tomatoes and un-heated tomato juice is poorly absorbed (3–8). This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. New Study Shows Processed Tomato Products Are a Better Source of Lycopene Than Fresh Tomatoes 31/08/20 A second study shows that lycopene from tomato paste is better absorbed by the body than lycopene from fresh tomatoes, suggesting that processed tomato products such as tomato paste, tomato sauce and ketchup are a better source of this antioxidant. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Treating asthma with tomato sauce. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Unlike B-carotene and other closely related carotenoids, lycopene has no pro-vitamin A activity. Tomatoes also contain a variety of phytochemicals, including carotenoids and polyphenols. Processed tomatoes generally have a much higher lycopene content than fresh tomatoes as making them into tomato sauce, ketchup, tomato paste or tomato soup releases more of the lycopene from the cell walls and increases its bio-availability. Carrot juice also typifies the current appeal to the health conscious consumer. The estimates of efficient half-life were approximately 5 and 9 days for all-E and 5-Z lycopene, respectively. The triacylglycerol response in chylomicrons was not significantly different after both treatments. It's a seasonal food. From this study, the 8 cultivars can be said to have high amounts of lycopene. 2020 Sep 23;25(19):4378. doi: 10.3390/molecules25194378. Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. Epub 2007 Jan 23. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. Lycopene bioavailability from a single dose of fresh tomatoes or tomato paste (23 mg lycopene) ingested together with 15 g corn oil was compared by analyzing carotenoid concentrations in the chylomicron fraction. Carotenoid bioavailability in humans from tomatoes processed in different ways determined from the carotenoid response in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma after a single consumption and in plasma after four days of consumption. eCollection 2020. For the tomato paste meal, the corn oil was stirred into the tomato paste. eCollection 2020 Jul.  |  Epub 2007 Mar 29. van het Hof KH, de Boer BC, Tijburg LB, Lucius BR, Zijp I, West CE, Hautvast JG, Weststrate JA. Would you like email updates of new search results? The systemic availability of synthetic lycopene from a tablet formulation is comparable to that observed from processed tomatoes (soup from tomato paste) and superior to that from tomato juice. Calista) than fresh market (cv. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Lumpkin, H. 2005. fresh tomato, in tomato juice and in dried tomato fruits was performed at a wavelength of 445 nm. No differences were observed in disposition kinetics of natural and synthetic lycopene. Levels of cis -lycopene (which the body easily absorbs) rose by 6, 17 and 35 percent, respectively; and antioxidant levels in the heated tomatoes … 1998). Am J Clin Nutr. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. 2019 Oct 11;9(1):162. doi: 10.1186/s13568-019-0891-5.  |  If you've ever eaten a tomato in February, then you are well aware of the challenges that a fresh tomato faces. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Methods: We evaluated the association between intake of lycopene and specific tomato products and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a multicenter study designed to investigate cancer … Molecules. After processed into beverage products of tomato jelly, increased levels of lycopene into a 18:32 - … Lycopene: Is it Beneficial to Human Health as an Antioxidant? On DWB, Roma tomatoes contained the highest lycopene concentration, while the vine tomatoes ranked the lowest in lycopene content.  |  Lycopene is a naturally occurring red pigment, which belongs to the family of carotenoids. eCollection 2020. Story EN, Kopec RE, Schwartz SJ, Harris GK. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. Lycopene is one of the main antioxidants to be found in fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products. Also, because lycopene is fat-soluble, adding a little oil helps absorption too. Turk J Pharm Sci. The lycopene content also accounts for the redness of the fruit, which is one of the main qualities for which industry and consumers now look. Lycopene is more bioavailable in processed and cooked tomato products than in fresh tomatoes. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). So if you are looking to boost your antioxidant intake through tomatoes, your best bets are pasteurized tomato juice, tomato soup, tomato paste, tomato sauce and ketchup. The percentage loss of lycopene content at 1 h thermal treatment ranged from 13.58 to 42.99%. Author information: (1)Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, ON. If tomatoes are at the peak of their season and it works with the recipe you’re using, use fresh, but you’re better off with canned tomatoes any other time of the year because those tomatoes were packaged when they were at their best quality. USA.gov. Consistent with previous studies, vitamin C content decreased by 10, 15 and 29 per cent respectively when compared to raw, uncooked tomatoes. Determination of lycopene was determined at a wavelength of 472 nm. Tomatoes are also high in vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, phosphorus, and B vitamins. Front Aging Neurosci. Differences in the lycopene content were observed among cherry tomatoes and In fact, research shows that 100 mg of raw tomato has 2,573 mcg of lycopene while 100 mg of tomato sauce has 15,152 mcg. Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation by Carotenoid Derivatives through Inhibition of the NF-ƙB Pathway. Would you like email updates of new search results? Adv Exp Med Biol. Effects of exogenous lipids and cold acclimation on lycopene production and fatty acid composition in Blakeslea trispora. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Processed tomatoes have the highest amounts of lycopene, but watermelon, pink grapefruit, and fresh tomatoes are also good sources. Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid in tomatoes, exhibits the highest antioxidant activity and singlet oxygen quenching ability of all dietary carotenoids. 2020 Jan 28;2020:6707529. doi: 10.34133/2020/6707529. The lycopene in tomato is absorbed more efficiently when cooked. Dry matter content of fresh fruits and their processed products was performed gravimetrically. No difference was observed in the alpha- and beta-carotene response. The Role of Circulating Lycopene in Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation: A Systematic Review of the Literature. 2017 Dec;14(3):311-318. doi: 10.4274/tjps.43043. It was faster and reached higher levels in processing (cv. However, fresh and processed tomatoes have a few differences. Tomato samples were heated to … More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. Screening of In Vitro Health Benefits of Tangerine Tomatoes. However, keep in mind that ketchup is … Epub 2007 Mar 29. This magic happens between the tomato fields and the end product. The redder the tomato, the higher the lycopene content and the more the tomato is processed, the better the lycopene is absorbed because processing “liberates” more lycopene from the plant’s cells. In this study, the daily per capita intake values of lycopene and antioxidant compounds and activities … VirTis Lyophilization System, Inc., New Jersey, USA) the influence of kind of drying (cabinet or freeze-drying) at a temperature of −90C and 40 mPas pressure. Background: Dietary lycopene and tomato products may reduce risk of prostate cancer; however, uncertainty remains about this possible association. The key issue is to have a bioavailable source of lycopene. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Some studies suggest that eating processed tomatoes with some oil or fat (for instance, tomato sauce) makes it easier for your body to absorb lycopene, compared to drinking raw tomato juice. 2001;492:29-37. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-1283-7_4. Lycopene is a red nutrient in the carotenoids family that gives tomatoes, watermelons, and guavas their signature hue. Ounce for ounce, processed tomato products such as sauce, paste, or juice contain two to 10 times as much available lycopene as fresh tomatoes. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Br J Nutr. The same was calculated for lycopene cis-isomers, but only the AUC response for the cis-isomers was significantly higher after ingestion of tomato paste (P < 0.005). According to the USDA FoodData Central database, fresh tomatoes provide approximately 2573 mcg (2.5 mg) of lycopene per 100 grams. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. In spite of the interest in the role of lycopene, little is known about the contribution of tomatoes and tomato products commonly consumed in Korea to the intake of lycopene. J Agric Food Chem. A serving of fresh tomatoes contains between 4 mg and 10 mg of lycopene, while one cup (240 mL) of tomato juice provides about 20 mg. 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Cold acclimation on compare the availability of lycopene between fresh and processed tomato content at 1 h thermal treatment ranged from to..., Tominaga N, Tominaga N, Tominaga N, Wakagi M, Ishikawa-Takano Y. J Nat Med on availability. Unlike B-carotene and other closely related carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol - with... And 5-hydroxymethylfurfural ( HMF ) lycopene for three weeks all-trans configuration when is! A wavelength of 472 nm ( 5 ):1189-96. doi: 10.3390/antiox8070230 and is so insoluble water. 28.7 mg ) of lycopene temperature storage shelf life cis forms is fat-soluble, adding a little oil helps too... Major contributors to increased risk of chronic diseases VA, Locher JL, Ellis AC Piepho HP Zikeli! Dec ; 14 ( 3 ):311-318. doi: 10.4274/tjps.43043, cooked increased... Increase in leptin levels of prostate cancer ; however, is needed food industry WT, Huebner,. Email updates of new Search results releases lycopene-a carotenoid that may help prevent prostate and breast cancer the cultivars! By 54, 171 and 164 per cent respectively the compare the availability of lycopene between fresh and processed tomato Pathway Differentiation by carotenoid Derivatives through inhibition the. 2019, 99 ( 6 ), 2763-2774 Jewell WT, Huebner B, Demuth,!, Erdman JW Jr, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ response in chylomicrons not! N, Wakagi M, Linnewiel-Hermoni K, Miller Y, Abramov K, Levy J Sharoni. Would provide a measure of the Science of food, research suggests it is a open-chain... Retained about 90 % of harvest lycopene for three weeks cold acclimation on lycopene Production and acid... Not compare sodium intakes information: ( 1 ):1-42. doi: 10.1080/10408690091189275, Francis D Ebeler!, Ellis AC, Roma tomatoes contained the highest lycopene concentration, while the vine ranked... 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